These are spread notes that are played in C major which involves playing with a squiggled line marking which has an arrow pointing causing the notes to be played bottom to top as well as playing each note one after the other instead of at the same time. It also depends on which way the line of the arrow is facing within the note.
These indicate to jump to the next space on the staff going from B flat to C sharp. The 2 rules involves alternating in between notes & watch out for grace notes.
Turns are ornamentation that causes a note to become four different notes both above & below the written notes on wherever it is on the staff, An example is with B to C in which they appear in between notes which causes you to play quickly before each other.
Acciaccaturas or grace notes are crushed notes that causes you to slide gently from one note to the next so you should play it where the grace note should be located indicating where the beat is/played just before or after the beat depending on the tempo For some styles of music there are different ways to play the grace note depending on the music that you’re playing.
A dynamic explains how loud or quiet a note should be. F means Forte while a double F means very loud or fortissimo. P means piano or soft while double or triple P can mean very soft. M means medium soft or mezzo piano. MF means mezzo forte meaning medium loud.
Crescendo means to get loud gradually as you play whatever instrument or song. While a D crescendo or diminuendo means to get softer gradually.You play a forced note using forte-sondo & forte-sondo piano making it go from forced to piano. These are just some examples of the many dynamics listed.